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This led to an exodus of a number of Ukrainian intellectuals into Western Ukraine. However, many Ukrainians accepted their fate in the Russian Empire and some were to achieve a great success there. Many Russian writers, composers, painters and architects of the 19th century were of Ukrainian descent. Probably the most notable were Nikolai Gogol, one of the greatest writers in the history of Russian literature, and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers in the history of Russian music, whose father came of Ukrainian Cossack stock.

The fate of the Ukrainians was far different under the Austrian Empire where they found themselves in the pawn position of the Russian-Austrian power struggle for the Central and Southern Europe. Unlike in Russia, most of the elite that ruled Galicia were of Austrian or Polish descent, with the Ruthenians being almost exclusively kept in peasantry. During the 19th century, Russophilia was a common occurrence among the Slavic population, but the mass exodus of Ukrainian intellectuals escaping from Russian repression in Eastern Ukraine, as well as the intervention of Austrian authorities, caused the movement to be replaced by Ukrainophilia, which would then cross-over into the Russian Empire.

With the start of World War I, all those supporting Russia were rounded up and massacred by the Austrian forces at Talerhof.

Shortly after the October Revolution of , a military struggle for control of Ukraine began and was waged intermittently until by Ukrainian independentist forces and pro-Bolshevik elements seeking to establish Soviet rule. Notwithstanding the creation of the Ukrainian National Republic UNR on 20 November , the Bolsheviks planned to seize power in Ukraine with the aid of Russian or Russified urban elements, Russian garrisons, and army units stationed near the front.

Their armed uprising in Kiev on 11 December was unsuccessful, however, and the Bolshevized army units were deported from Ukraine in stages. A pro-Bolshevik force under Yevheniia Bosh moving in on Kiev was also disarmed by Ukrainian troops under Pavel Skoropadsky and then sent off to Russia.

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However, in December a 30,strong Red Guards army from Russia set off for Ukraine starting the war that would eventually lead to the establishment of Soviet rule in all of central and eastern Ukraine. The national-communist policies of Ukrainization grew out of the weakness of early Soviet governments in Ukraine following the Revolution of and the failed Ukrainian struggle for independence. As early as Mykola Skrypnyk attributed this weakness to national hostility between the Ukrainian peasantry and the Russified workers, which was reflected in the Ukrainophobic policies of the Soviet authorities.

The way to legitimize Soviet rule in Ukrainian eyes lay in the gradual de-Russification of the proletariat in Ukraine and its adoption of Ukrainian culture. The Borotbists, led by Oleksander Shumsky, offered a similar analysis. Under Skrypnyk's supervision all postsecondary education was rapidly Ukrainized while the Ukrainian language was promoted among the government bureaucracy and in the military.

A Short History of Ukraine

This process resulted, among others, in the brilliant flourishing of Ukrainian literature led by such writers as Mykola Khvylovy , culture, and scholarship. The successes of Ukrainization fostered the myth that Ukrainians had achieved a measure of national liberation within the Soviet framework, but the hopes of the national communists were brutally quashed.

As part of wide-ranging repressions directed against Ukrainians, in Stalin ordered the CP B U to halt the implementation of Ukrainization and root out 'national deviations' from the Party line. The Party purge singled out 'national communists' as primary targets. The suicide of Khvylovy in May and that of Skrypnyk in July mark the end of openly expressed national-communist ideas in Ukraine. After World War II some amendments to the Constitution of the Ukrainian SSR were accepted, which allowed it to act as a separate subject of international law in some cases and to a certain extent, remaining a part of the Soviet Union at the same time.

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Over the next decades, the Ukrainian republic not only surpassed pre-war levels of industry and production but also was the spearhead of Soviet power. Ukraine became the centre of Soviet arms industry and high-tech research.


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The republic was also turned into a Soviet military outpost in the cold war, a territory crowded by military bases packed with the most up-to-date weapons systems. However, the relatively underdeveloped industrial branches such as coal- and iron ore mining, metallurgy, chemical and energy industry dominated the republic's economy. Once a Cossack steppe, the southern oblasts of Dnepropetrovsk and Zaporozhye were turned into a highly industrialised area with rapidly increasing impact on its environment and public health.

A pursuit to energy production sufficient for growing industry led to the gigantic nature-remastering: turning the Dnieper River into a regulated system of large reservoirs. The products of the rapidly developed high-tech industry in Ukraine were largely directed for military consumption, similarly to much of the Soviet economy, and the supply and quality of consumer goods remained low compared even to the neighboring countries of the Eastern bloc.

Trypillya culture

A state-regulated system of production and consumption lead to gradual decrease of quality of life and growing "shadowisation" of retail infrastructure as well as of corruption. Its makers occupied villages of long, rectangular houses that were sometimes arranged in concentric circles. In the centre, cattle were fenced in an enclosure.

The Trypillya people practiced shifting agriculture , frequently moving their settlements. Trypillya culture. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback.

Thank you for your feedback. See Article History. October 15, - February 15, in the framework of international exhibition project "Ukraine - World" held exhibitions in museums USA. In general, the project brought remarkable interest of American society to the state which has such a rich history of development.

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Shows of exhibition held in major museums:. March 1, As a part of the international project "Ukraine for World" a two-year tour of the exhibition "Glory to Ukraine.

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Golden Treasures and Lost Civilizations" ended. We take this opportunity to express our deep respect and gratitude to the President of Ukraine Mr.