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Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results and trends related to the subject treated. This volume reports on a large variety of mathematical simulations, covering all production steps of special glass manufacturing: melting, fining, mixing, homogenizing, hot and cold forming, thermal treatment, post-processing.

Modern, commercially available software packages have been used and - whenever necessary - modified to satisfy the special requirements and situations in liquid or solid glasses, or the boundary conditions of forming processes.

Glass Molding and Optics Simulation Laboratory

The CD-ROM shows 27 simulations of different aspects such as surprising details of the pressing and casting process. The mathematical approach often helps understanding the overall and sometimes hidden features of processes and thus is a highly efficient tool for optimization efforts. Complementing and partly replacing experimental investigations, mathematical simulation enables considerable savings in time and money.

Several of the results reported here are unique and published for the first time. Today, the methods of mathematical simulation are an integral part of problem solving in glass technology.

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The book is conceived as a monograph. The individual chapters, however, are written by different Schott experts or Schott's cooperation partners from international research institutes or universities.

The scientific and technical background of the methods, as well as selected results and applications are treated in detail. Table of contents Overview. Melting and Fining. Homogenizing and Conditioning. Shaping at Low Viscosities.

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Since the reconstruction of the Schott Glaswerke in Mainz, the scale has increased enormously. The range of expert knowledge required could never have been supplied by Schott alone. It is also a tradition in our company to cultivate collaboration with customers, universities, and research institutes. Publications in numerous technical journals, which since we have edited to a regular schedule as Forschungsberichte - "research reports" - describe the results of these cooperations.

They contain up-to-date infor mation on various topics for the expert but are not suited as survey material for those whose standpoint is more remote. This is the point where we would like to place our series, to stimulate the exchange of thoughts, so that we can consider from different points of view the possibilities offered by those incredibly versatile materials, glass and glass ceramics.

Glass Molding and Optics Simulation Laboratory | RIKEN

We would like to share the knowledge won through our research and development at Schott in cooperation with the users of our materials with scientists and engineers, interested customers and friends, and with the employees of our firm. Melting and Fining.

Plant Simulation software enables digitalization for the glass industry

Analytical Modeling. The inputs required are the glass thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, absorption length, breaking stress, Young's modulus, thermal coefficient of linear expansion, thickness, emissivity, shading thickness, half-width of window, the ambient temperature, numerical parameters and the time histories of flame radiation from the fire, hot layer temperature and emissivity, and heat transfer coefficients. The outputs are temperature history of the glass normal to the glass surface, and the window breakage time. It simulates conditions due to user-specified fires in a multi-room, multi-level facility.

The required inputs are a description of room geometry and vent characteristics up to 9 rooms, 20 vents , initial state of the inside and outside environment, and fire energy release rates as a functions of time up to 20 fires. If simulation of concentrations of products of combustion is desired, then product release rates must also be specified up to three products. For forced vents, flow rates and direction can be user-specified or included in the simulation by accounting for user-specified fan and duct characteristics. Wind and stack effects can be taken into account.

It can be used to predict the actuation time of fixed temperature heat detectors and sprinkler heads subject to a user specified fire. DETACT-QS assumes that the thermal device is located in a relatively large area, that is only the fire ceiling flow heats the device and there is no heating from the accumulated hot gases in the room.

Fire modeling programs

The required program inputs are the height of the ceiling above the fuel, the distance of the thermal device from the axis of the fire, the actuation temperature of the thermal device, the response time index RTI for the device, and the rate of heat release of the fire. The program outputs are the ceiling gas temperature and the device temperature both as a function of time and the time required for device actuation.

It can be used to predict the actuation time of fixed temperature and rate of rise heat detectors, and sprinkler heads subject to a user specified fire which grows as the square of time. CT-T2 assumes that the thermal device is located in a relatively large area, that is only the fire ceiling flow heats the device and there is no heating from the accumulated hot gases in the room. The required program inputs are the ambient temperature, the response time index RTI for the device, the activation and rate of rise temperatures of the device, height of the ceiling above the fuel, the device spacing and the fire growth rate.

The program outputs are the time to device activation and the heat release rate at activation.

ELVAC Elevator Evacuation is an interactive computer program that estimates the time required to evacuate people from a building with the use of elevators and stairs. It is cautioned that elevators generally are not intended as a means of fire evacuation, and they should not be used during fires. However, it is possible to design elevator systems that for fire emergencies, and ELVAC can be used to evaluate the potential performance of such systems. ELVAC calculates the evacuation time for one group of elevators.

Input consists of floor to floor heights, number of people on floors, number of elevators in the group, elevator speed, elevator acceleration, elevator capacity, elevator door type and width, and various inefficiency factors. The output is a table of elevator travel time, round trip time, people moved, and number of round trips for each floor plus the total evacuation time.


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  2. Mathematical simulation in glass technology.
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FIRDEMND simulates the suppression of post flashover charring and non-charring solid-fuel fires in compartments using water sprays from portable hose-nozzle equipment used by the fire departments.