In health services delivery, innovative space technologies are now applied in assistive robotic surgeries, predictive diagnosis, compact water filtration systems, injection safety devices and precision medicine. Furthermore, satellite communications-based tele-health, telemedicine services and tele-guided ultrasound systems now connect patients and caregivers in hard-to-reach or resource-constrained settings.
In addition, satellite images can assist in delivering vaccines or accessing health-care facilities by rapidly allowing the detection of road features of an image through feature extraction, producing a map of road networks where maps are either not available or inexistent. In health systems research, space-based research, such as on the International Space Station 6 can provide unique data on physiologic and biological processes, which may allow potential novel therapeutic approaches to identify diseases.
Space science and technology thus contribute to epidemic intelligence, health emergencies and the research agenda on the benefits to public health.
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Space-based innovation in the health sector is poised to bring significant health and economic gains through the adoption of product and process innovations at all levels of health services. This will contribute to delivering better health for all people and could reduce the disease burden.
These innovations have a clear place in prevention, preparedness, response and recovery — all the important stages of national public health management. Thus far, the use of space science and technology in public health has been sporadic. Earth observation data from orbiting satellites and ground-based sensors are already used by a few countries to make public health decisions, but more countries could use space-based technologies and geospatial information in this way. To use space science and technologies in advancing the health sustainable development goal, appropriate national-level policies and governance mechanisms are essential.
National governments are encouraged to strengthen policy and governance mechanisms for closer collaboration between health ministries, other relevant ministries and space agencies to leverage the benefits of space science and technologies for health gains. Governments should ensure national technical readiness for geospatial information management as well as the use of space-based innovations and integrate the use of geospatial data in health systems strengthening efforts.
Advances in Space Research
Health Topics. World Health Statistics. In other cases actions are well integrated but families removed from the area to be recovered receive compensation which is far below property market prices LUZ, The result it that families are likely to migrate to other illegally occupied and environmentally fragile areas. Green areas planning. Its aim is to increase the number of parks urban, riverside, reserves by the end of The "Adopt a Square" program encourages citizens and private organizations to maintain squares.
Other positive actions which stand out are the government's efforts in acquiring areas at the edge of the city to turn them into parks and protected areas by creating an area bank. However, the analysis of the planning process revealed it is still deficient and the creation of new areas has been too influenced by politics and opportunism. According to interviewees, no plans were conceived to allocate green areas using criteria such as prioritizing their implementation in areas affected by floods or heat islands, generally found in areas of greater density, or used as the basis for landscape planning, as happens in Germany, a country which has a Federal Nature Conservation Law.
German legislation provides for the protection of natural resources and landscapes in inhabited and uninhabited areas by recognizing their intrinsic value and importance as a basic human need, also encompassing the protection of green areas. According to German law, landscape planning is an important instrument and a duty of local and regional governments. Another important factor is the relationship between Landscape Planning and Urban Planning.
According to the general principle of balance between public and private interests imbedded in the Federal Urban Planning Law, when new urban development plans are defined landscape planning must be considered and taken into account as an issue of environmental public interest.
According to German legislation, an imbalance between different interests may make a particular urban development plan void - a significant impediment to future buildings in relevant areas. German law sets out another mechanism which, when strategically used, provides indirect support to the protection of green areas: a requirement to avoid, whenever possible, not only any significant and lasting intervention on the natural environment and landscape, but also any degradation of ecosystems and landscapes.
Adverse effects must be prevented if there are reasonable alternatives in order to achieve the aims of the intervention in the site, causing as few adverse effects to the natural environment as possible. When this is not possible, a justification must be presented. There is a greater concentration of parks in the West, Centre and Centre-South regions of the city respectively, to the detriment of other areas.
The authors concluded that the spatial distribution of parks is the reflection of a chaotic territorial policy in which the functionality of different types are not well considered when urban parks are created. In addition to poor green areas planning, actions remain concentrated on creating spaces instead of protecting private green areas. Some interviewees strongly defended protection as a priority strategy and criticized a conception in which urban planning is directed more toward the development of new green areas.
The analysis of green areas policies and the system set out in the PDE revealed the need for a revision, including a better definition of the categories making up the system, as well as their specific roles. Although objectives, directives and strategic actions were laid out, they were neither clearly defined as a structured, connected and continuous system, nor were their relationship with the urban fabric considered. On the other hand, although the current PDE did not describe each component of the green areas system and their role in detail, these were more comprehensively described, becoming known as the Protected Areas, Green Areas and Open Spaces System.
In this system, the creation of a Municipal Plan for Protected Areas, Green Areas and Open Spaces was proposed to include, amongst other factors, the definition of the different classifications of green areas and open spaces. It also set out a policy for these spaces. In addition, some system components are described in more detail, such as Permanent Preservation Areas APPs , cemeteries and riverside parks. Given that each part of a green areas system has a specific role and that there is variation in terms of the conservation and usage of more intensive uses, it is important that each category is more clearly defined, taking into account urban situations and different roles.
This is to facilitate the definition of use and occupation parameters allowed for each category, as well as to establish the priority categories for implementing green areas or integrating new areas to the system Bonduki and Ferreira, Furthermore, the Municipal Secretariat for Development, SMDU, points to a lack of joined up efforts between sectorial policies as an implementation failure of the municipal green areas system.
Nevertheless, it is important to stress that a few joined-up actions have enabled the creation of green or permeable areas based on urban policies. The Works Code Municipal Law n. Furthermore, the PDE environmental policy - differently from the PDE environmental policy which is presented in a separate chapter and not integrated with other sectorial policies, making its adoption difficult - is laid out as a cross-cutting policy, integrated with various other policies, systems and economic development strategies Art.
Urban planning is the activity that defines the long-term use and occupation of land such as residential, commercial, mixed or industrial use. It, therefore, defines the potential loss of green areas and environmental functions. Thus, it is essential to analyse how and to what extent issues relating to the sustainable management of land are effectively integrated into urban development plans and policies. The German Urban Plan Federal Law, for example, uses a common model to include environmental protection and climate issues in urban development plans.
This legislation focuses on the principle of balancing public and private interests. Issues involving the environment, climate protection and the management of green areas must be assessed and considered during the urban planning process. Similarly, urban planning instruments which could have potentially been used to benefit green areas, such as the Building Rights Transference and Pre-emptive Rights, were neither properly regulated nor applied.
With the enactment of the new PDE, the implementation and effectiveness of instruments set out and actions proposed must be studied over time.
Sepe shows that from , the SVMA administration laid out a new rationale for implementing green areas. By using indicators, important tools for quantifying and assessing the benefits and distribution of green areas in the city, it was possible to clearly see that, indeed, some areas did not have any green spaces. In , the city had 31 parks distributed among 17 wards, a total of approximately However, the current mapping system of green areas and vegetation cover still make a detailed analysis of its historical evolution difficult, given that they were drawn using different methodologies and scales, hampering any comparison over time of the loss of vegetation and land use and occupation.
Within this context, Nucci and Cavalheiro argue that the classification and the quantification of green spaces in cities is a challenge, given that problems relating to the definition of terms associated with the quantification of vegetation make it difficult to propose more precise criteria which could assist in the drafting of new legislation to protect the quality of life of the urban population. Furthermore, interviewees stated that no detailed vegetation mapping had been conducted or updated.
These are indispensable for planning green areas. Another planning activity, environmental control, was classified as regular. The aim of this initiative was to protect, control and recover areas of public or environmental interest and water sources. However, findings show that the control of illegal occupation and deforestation is still deficient. The development of the urban space still adopts the logic of the property market which prioritizes the private over the public, instead of balancing both interests.
Many German states aim to reach this target with public policies and stakeholders networks whose aim is to reduce the urban occupation of green areas and prevent consequent urban expansion.
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States such as Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bavaria or Northrhine-Westphalia set out incentive and economic support programs so as to enable urban residential and commercial development by using and reusing the internal potential of urban centres. This involves making potential use of contaminated industrial and commercial sites, and abandoned public areas such as railways , an increase in the density of previously developed areas, as well as using the empty spaces between buildings. In this way, city planning makes full use of the urban potential to re-use areas whenever possible to limit the loss of green areas.
There were no occasions when instruments were not applied Chart 1. However, most are deficient in some way and are therefore classified as "adequate".
Advances in Learning Environments Research
Only five management aspects were considered to be fully satisfactory: environmental legislation at all three levels of government, the existence of a Municipal Environmental System, the existence of adequate institutional structure, the existence of financial resources allocated to the management of green areas and the integration between municipal governments.
Therefore, although it was produced in it is a long-term mechanism expected to last at least 20 years. However, Agenda 21 is considered to be not only a reference for the proposed analysis, but also an environmental management institutional instrument. This analysis was carried out by verifying the compliance with objectives found in the document's specific chapter which describes the means for implementing an effective and sustainable green areas system. Neither environmental education nor the creation of instruments to expand the archive of public properties to implement social facilities have been considered in this study.
The objective related to drafting a policy for using public and private land plots for expanding and maintaining green areas in the Municipality was adequately achieved. The PDE defined the adoption of the urban policy instruments contained in the Statute of the City to green areas.
Some of these instruments were adequately adopted. However, most are in need of regulation or have not been adequately applied, as already mentioned. The second objective sets out a public agreement between the Executive, the Legislative and organized civil society in order to implement the proposals agreed and defined in accordance with the priorities jointly defined with the population. It also establishes the revision and expansion the Municipality's Green Areas System. However, there are many restrictions affecting the expansion of the Green Areas System, as previously observed.
The third objective relates to the preservation of all significant vegetation formations - forest, shrubland, wetlands, fields, riparian vegetation and rainforest - in order to guarantee a genetic bank with scientific exploration potential for projects to recover degraded areas and expand natural green areas. The objective regarding the different vegetation types in the municipality has been partially attained. New nature reserves were recently created in the municipality which could be considered an advance.
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A new vision is emerging relating to biodiversity and vegetation types which had almost disappeared with the growth of the municipality which are now receiving more attention from local government. According to interviewees, experts' views have changed and now incorporate this issue in green areas projects.
Nevertheless, it is important to expand mechanisms for protecting different vegetation types in the municipality. The objective to improve the current rate of public green areas per inhabitant was attained. In recent years, the ratio of public green areas per inhabitant has increased, although not significantly from However, other indicators reflecting other facets of the green areas and their distribution in the city must also be considered. On the other hand, the objective relating to improving the existing monitoring system to guarantee the maintenance of privately owned plots of lands and other sites with significant amounts of green areas has not been reached, at least for now.
Although a system for paying for environmental services was proposed in the PDE and the SVMA started a register of owners with properties on the border areas of the municipality, few concrete actions have been taken to incentivize private green area owners to maintain them. The only exception is the IPTU discount for properties covered in trees and described as permanent or perpetuated preservation areas, according to the Forestry Code.
There have been some improvements regarding proposals to promote the better management of public green areas and tree planting on thoroughfares, including the diversification of species. Despite improvements related to the implementation of programs such as "Square Carers" and "Adopt a Square", the management of green areas is still deficient, for example, there is a lack of medium and long-term planning in terms of vegetation, a lack of park management planning and bidding processes are steered by the lowest costs, affecting the viability of good projects.
Many areas which should have been destined for the implementation of public green areas, in accordance to Municipal Law n. Thus, the eighth objective was partially attained.